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Contraceptive methods

Contraceptive Methods

For a long time, it has been considered that the use of protection when having sexual intercourse has the sole objective of preventing conception, in other words, an unwanted pregnancy, however, this is not entirely true since the fact of Using certain contraceptive methods also provides protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

Among the current methods used today, we have the traditional condom (condom), diaphragm, subcutaneous hormonal implants, IUD (copper and with hormones), tubal ligation, vasectomy and oral hormonal contraceptive methods (normal and extended regimen) and also by other routes such as transvaginal or transcutaneous.


The condom is one of the most common contraceptive methods, it is a barrier method. Used frequently by men, however, there is also the female condom.

This method has an antiquity that corresponds to the Egyptian time since by then they were made with fabrics or animal intestines. It is important to know that in many cases the condom is used more as a tool to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases than as a mechanism to prevent pregnancy.

Male condom

The male condom is the most common since it is often part of awareness campaigns on the use of contraceptive methods taken to schools, high schools, universities and also in prevention talks in health centers. It is made of a very soft plastic band.

At the time of putting on the male condom, the package should be torn with care not to tear it. Once the condom has been removed, it should be noted that the penis must be fully erect.

The condom must be placed on the glans, that is, the most bulky part of the penis and the protruding area of ​​the condom must be squeezed to prevent air from entering, this is essential since this part of the condom is where the semen is deposited once you have ejaculated.

This condom must be placed before having any type of genital contact with whoever is going to have sexual intercourse since it is necessary to avoid any type of infection or a sexually transmitted disease.

Female condom

The female condom or also known as an internal condom, works in the same way as the male condom, that is, it is a barrier mechanism that can prevent an unwanted pregnancy or a sexually transmitted disease. This type of condom is inserted into the vagina or anus and is made, like the male condom, of a soft plastic (nitrile).

Management regarding the use of the female condom is acquired with practice, however, it is simple. To begin with, it must be taken into account that it is essential to validate the expiration date of the condom. Once this is done, it is removed from the packaging, taking into account that it must be done with foresight to avoid breaking it.

The female condom is already pre-lubricated, that is, it is already a characteristic of the condom, if you prefer, you can use spermicide before placing it inside the vagina. After that, it is essential to relax and get into a comfortable position for insertion. Some of the recommended forms or positions include standing, sitting or squatting in other cases, however, this decision is directly associated with the comfort of those who need to put on the condom, therefore, there is no mandatory position for placement.

When you are in the position of your preference, the condom should be placed at the entrance of the vagina, then it is necessary to squeeze the sides of the inner ring of the condom and insert it into the vaginal interior.

Then proceed to push the inner ring in order to make it possible to move it inside the vagina, in this process it is advisable to insert it as far as possible and once it is correctly positioned, remove the fingers.


The diaphragm is also within the group of existing female contraceptive methods. It consists of a cup in the shape of a disc, quite flexible, which must be placed on the cervix when having sexual intercourse.

It is made from silicone, which makes it very soft and comfortable to use. In addition, it has little depth, which is why the insertion is not complex. This method represents a barrier that makes protection against unwanted pregnancies possible, however, it is recommended to use it with spermicides to make its use more effective.

Its use is quite simple, however, the experience is acquired once the diaphragm has been used on several occasions, however, it is a process as simple as the condom.

To use this and all contraceptive methods that require vaginal insertion or contact with the genitals, it is essential to maintain hygiene, for this it is necessary to do a good previous washing of the hands before proceeding with the placement.

Once this is done, it is advisable to place yourself in a comfortable position, the diaphragm is very similar to using a vaginal tampon. Then, with one hand, the vulva (lips) should be opened and with the other hand, the diaphragm ring should be pressed so that it can be folded in half.

Finally, the diaphragm must be pushed into the vagina as deep as possible, the dome must be down. Once placed inside, it must be validated that it has indeed been adjusted, for this, you must make sure that the diaphragm has covered the cervix.

Oral contraceptive methods

Oral contraceptives are all those methods that are ingested by taking tablets or pills which are made up of doses in small amounts of hormones, in addition to estrogen. Its function is to prevent ovulation (maturation and exit of the ovum) so that the sperm cannot fertilize.

In the case of this type of method, it is essential to attend the gynecologist for a prior consultation, since it is not advisable to ingest any type of oral contraceptive without prescribed authorization, this is because the improper use of them can generate adverse effects such as weight gain, acne, menstrual lack of control, etc.

On the other hand, it should be taken into account that taking the pill does not imply protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

Oral contraceptive methods normal guideline

In the case of the consumption of the contraceptive pill in a normal schedule, the tablet must be taken at the same time for a period of 21 or 24 days. Once this time is over, you must wait for 4 or 7 continuous days to start the cycle again. Some preparations provide placebo pills (without medication) for those 4 or 7 days, so that the woman does not have to interrupt taking the pills.

Oral contraceptive methods in an extended regimen

To talk about oral contraceptive methods in an extended regimen, it is important to know that this refers to the prolonged use of the method. In this sense, the 3-month pill can be taken as an example, in which the pill is taken for a period of 84 continuous days at the same time or the 1-year pill, which must be taken every day at the same time. same time for a year. These guidelines have the advantage that the woman has much fewer periods than usual.

Oral contraceptive methods can be used until the person wishes, however, it is possible that there are affectations such as venous thromboembolism, headache, bleeding outside the menstrual period, etc.

Contraceptive methods by other routes

It is the same composition as oral contraceptives but is administered transvaginally (in the form of a ring) or transcutaneously (in the form of a patch). The main medical difference with the oral route is that with these routes the administration of the drug is continuous, which can make it preferable in some cases.

Subcutaneous implants

Subcutaneous implants respond to a type of female contraceptive method that only prevents a possible unwanted pregnancy, however, this method does not protect in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The implant is the size of a matchstick and its small size makes it possible to place it in the forearm.

It has a 99% safety rate and must be inserted and removed by a doctor. The placement process is quite simple, so it only takes one minute on average for the doctor to install it.

Subcutaneous implants must be placed during the initial 7 days of menstruation. The expiration time of said contraceptive method will depend on the company or brand to which it belongs, for example, in the market there are already some long-lasting ones that can be used for up to 5 years.

IUD Intrauterine Device

The IUD is one of the most effective contraceptive methods in terms of preventing pregnancy. This device is a plastic piece that has a “T” shape. IUDs are divided into two types: the copper IUD and the hormonal IUD. This contraceptive method does not work as a protector against sexually transmitted diseases and must be applied exclusively by a doctor.

Copper IUD

Also called "T" of copper, it is made of a plastic material covered with copper wire, this prevents the sperm from fertilizing the ovum. This is placed in the matrix, by means of a tube specially designed for it.

Hormonal IUD

The hormonal IUD is a long-lasting contraceptive method, it is designed with a plastic material covered by a deposit of hormones (levonorgestrel). Thanks to these, the amount of bleeding and pain during menstruation is reduced.

In the market there are hormonal IUDs with two different doses of hormones, which means that they can be indicated for practically any woman. On the other hand, this type of IUDs also offer endometrial protection in women who are already in the menopausal stage and are undergoing hormone replacement therapy.

Surgical methods

Tubal ligation

Tubal ligation consists of the female sterilization process in which the fallopian tubes are closed or removed. This type of method is applied through minimally invasive surgery and it is irreversible.


Vasectomy is a surgical process in which the male sexual ducts are closed or removed for sterilization. Once done, man can no longer fertilize.

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