We know that the Cardiovascular disease (ECV) is the leading cause of mortality in postmenopausal women in industrialized countries. This risk is lower in women during the reproductive season, but increases in women after pregnancy. menopause and over the years, especially in the precocious menopausal women, with rates that are equal to men, becoming the main cause of mortality in this group of women.
When this disease appears, its presentation is not the same in men as in women, and in general, when women go to the specialist, they arrive in worse conditions with which the evolution is more serious, with higher mortality.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
If they divide into two large groups:
- Non-modifiable factors: Age, Heredity, Sex, Race.
- Modifiable factors: Smoking, HBP, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Obesity, Sedentary lifestyle, Hypoestrogenism.
These factors are the same for both sexes except as regards the estrogenic level and that is considered key in the postmenopausal woman.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease
Regardless of the beneficial effect that estrogens may have as prevention of CVD, we must not forget that The most important is:
- Correct obesity
- Maintain blood pressure at normal values
- Correct dyslipidemia and diabetes
- Give up the habit of smoking. It is important to emphasize this point, since for postmenopausal women who smoke who wants to reduce CVD risk, the most important thing to quit tobacco
To avoid the hypercholesterinemia, the daily intake of cholesterol should not exceed 300 mg. day. Lowering cholesterol by 1% has been shown to reduce coronary risk by 2%.
La Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis recommended
Allowed foods: cereals, all legumes, fruits, vegetables, skimmed dairy, egg white, white and blue fish, canned tuna, chicken and turkey without skin rabbit olive oil and sunflower. jam, honey, fruits in syrup, sorbets, sugar, homemade pastries and with skim products, nuts except peanuts and spices.
Foods to restrict: Italian pasta with egg, whole egg, cheeses, meats and game, duck, candies, marzipan, mayonnaise, béchamel, high-proof alcohols.
Foods advised against: pastries, fried with fats, whole milk, cold cuts in general, butter, lard, chocolates and cakes.
In cases of hypertriglyceridaemia, the amounts should also be decreased.
La Hypertension it is also a problem that tends to appear over the years. Blood pressure is considered normal when the systolic or maximum is up to 140 mm. Hg. and the diastolic or minimum up to 90 mm. Hg.
We talk about MILD HBP when the systolic oscillates between 140 - 159 mm. Hg. and the diastolic between 90 - 94 mm. Hg., In these cases, in general no specific treatment is required, it is usually enough to reduce obesity if there is it, as well as alcohol intake, restrict salt, do physical exercise and slightly increase the intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, increasing the intake of fruit, nuts, vegetables and legumes.
When we find systolic tensions greater than 160 mm. Hg. or the diastolic greater than 95 mm. Hg. we are in front of a HTA that in general, in addition to the aforementioned measures, they will require pharmacological treatment for their control.
Summary table of HTN in mm. Hg.
When establishing a diet, all the above factors should be taken into account, remembering that caloric needs decrease over the years, and the decrease in calories should be extreme when there is overweight, increasing calcium intake and decreasing salt intake. Likewise, exercise is basic. Walking 45 minutes a day helps to improve mood, lower cholesterol, hypertension, obesity and the risk of diabetes.